The phycocyanin is a marine biological active substance extracted from seawater cyanobacteria and is a frontier and hot spot in the research of marine medicine development. Studies at home and abroad have shown that phycocyanin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, inhibition of hemolysis, promotes the body's immune system, improves the body's ability to resist radiation, protects nerve tissue and DNA from oxidative damage, protects the liver and protects the liver. Recent research has shown that phycocyanin has the ability to significantly inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro. At present, the focus of research is mainly on the research of anticancer activity. At present, many research institutions at home and abroad are conducting phycocyanin as a pharmacological and toxicological experiment for reporting new anti-tumor drugs. Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Developed and developed a new class of anti-tumor drugs, recombinant allophycocyanin (Ripke), pre-clinical pharmacodynamic study funded by the national "863" found: high-efficiency and low-toxicity significant anti-tumor effect, and Obvious dose-effect relationship.
Phycocyanin is also a very rare pigment protein with fluorescent properties. When excited by light, it can emit strong red fluorescence. It is used for clinical diagnosis of tumors and cancers. It is of great significance for early cancer diagnosis of cells. A new type of photosensitizer has a significant sensitizing effect on laser therapy of cancer. Using phycocyanin as a photosensitizer can increase the killing rate of laser on tumor cells from 12% to 88%, and the cure rate of cancer is increased by 55%.
Highly purified phycocyanin for photosensitizers is very expensive. In 1996, the price was $110/mg. In 1998, the price rose to $147.2/mg. In recent years, the price fluctuated between $150/mg and $180/mg. It is equivalent to 10,000 times of gold. China mainly relied on imports from the United States before. Since 2013, the Chinese company Zhejiang Binmei Biotechnology Co., Ltd. had successfully extracted high-purity phycocyanin from spirulina and used it for industrial production. Its products include the photosensitizer phycocyanin, food grade phycocyanin, cosmetic grade phycocyanin, pharmaceutical grade phycocyanin and reagent grade phycocyanin.
Study on anti-tumor mechanism of phycocyanin
1. A special effect COX-2 inhibitor
2. improve the body's immunity
Phycocyanin anti-tumor effect
1. Inhibit tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis, induce tumor cell apoptosis
2. liver protection, anti-inflammatory pain
3. Enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs and the radiosensitivity of tumors
4. Anti-radiation: It can significantly reduce and gradually eliminate the damage of white blood cells and bone marrow cells by irradiation and chemotherapy, and accelerate the recovery of peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow nucleated cells;
5. improve the body's immunity, prevent tumor metastasis and recurrence
Hong Kong: A new breakthrough in breast cancer treatment begins with the inhibition of COX-2
According to People's Daily Online: Zhou Yongchang, director of the Department of Breast Surgery at the University of Hong Kong Medical Center, began researching the use of epoxide (COX-2) inhibitors in 2008 to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and control the disease.
Zhou Yongchang and his researchers are currently conducting Phase III clinical research on this therapy. About 500 mid-term breast cancer patients from Queen Mary Hospital and Donghua Hospital in Hong Kong participated. Studies have shown that inhibitors have a good effect on inhibiting vascular proliferation of cancer cells and have no adverse effects on normal blood vessels.
Zhou Yongchang explained that when cancer cells grow up to one to two millimeters, they secrete substances to make blood vessels proliferate, providing nutrients to cancer cells to help continue to grow and increase. Studies have shown that vascular proliferation has also become a way for cancer cells to spread, until cancer cells metastasize to other organs, making the disease worse. Therefore, cutting off the blood source of the tumor can cut off the required nutrients, causing the tumor to shrink or even disappear. Angiogenesis is a new oncology study, and COX-2 inhibitors are enzymes that delay or prevent the formation of blood vessels.
COX-2: tumor growth promoter
COX is a 70kD glycoprotein located on the cell membrane, encoded by two different genes, the products encoded by the genes are COX-1 and COX-2; under normal circumstances, COX-1 is in most tissues. Expression to maintain the body's physiological function; while COX-2 is not expressed, in some pathological conditions, such as inflammation or tumors, the expression of COX-2 rapidly increased. The stronger the inhibition of COX-1, the greater the adverse reactions caused; the stronger the inhibition of COX-2, the more significant the anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
Early studies have found that COX-2 is associated with mucosal repair of gastritis, gastric ulcer and enteritis, and its role in the development of tumors has received increasing attention in recent years.
COX-2 is not only a key enzyme to initiate inflammatory response, but also participates in the development and progression of malignant tumors by promoting cell proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, promoting tumor neovascularization, promoting tumor cell infiltration, promoting invasion, and promoting inflammation. process.
Studies have shown that COX-2 selective inhibitors can significantly inhibit tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis, induce tumor cell apoptosis, and also enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy drugs and tumor radiosensitivity.
For example, the molecularly targeted drug celecoxib (celecoxib) is a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, which was originally used as a prescription drug for anti-inflammatory and analgesic. However, in recent studies, it has been found that Celebrex can inhibit tumor regeneration around tumors and promote tumor cell apoptosis. Some of the COX-2 inhibitors, ibuprofen, which were originally used for anti-inflammatory and analgesic, have been found to have a good inhibitory effect on cancer cells.
Phycocyanin: a special COX-2 inhibitor
Phycocyanin has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of COX-2, but for COX-1, phycocyanin has no effect (in other words, it has no toxic side effects on the human body, old-fashioned painkillers such as aspirin, which simultaneously block Broken COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes have side effects on the human body).
Data from two related assay systems (enzyme extraction assays and whole blood assays) reported that phycocyanin is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 with a very low IS50 value: COX-2/IS50COX -1ratio(0.04). The phycocyanin inhibits the IS50 value (18OMn) obtained by COX-2 and the well-known COX-2 selective inhibitor rofeeoxib (Chinese name: rofecoxib) (401nM) and eeleeoxib (Chinese name: celecoxib) (255nM) ) is much smaller than that. In human whole blood tests, phycocyanin is very effective in inhibiting COX-2 with an IS50 value of 80 Mn. After reducing phycocyanin and PCB chromophore, there is only a weak inhibitory effect and loss of COX-2 selectivity. It is suggested that phycocyanin plays an important role in the selective inhibition of COX-2.
The study also pointed out that the biological properties of phycocyanin, such as liver protection, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-arthritis, may also be partly due to its selective inhibition of COX-2, of course, effective removal of free radicals and effective inhibition of fat. The nature of the peroxidation reaction is also one of the reasons.
Phycocyanin: Improve your body's immunity
The occurrence, development and treatment of tumors are related to immunosuppression and immunodeficiency. All the effect components of the immune system have an effect on eliminating tumor cells and controlling tumor growth. It is generally considered that cellular immunity plays an important role in the anti-tumor immune response. Compared with polysaccharides, phycocyanin inhibits tumor cell growth and enhances immunity. It can significantly enhance immune function, especially cellular immune function, and stimulate spleen lymphocytes to produce colony-stimulating factor and increase lymphocyte immunity. It promotes the immune system against various diseases and prevents tumors.